FAMILY: Rutaceae (Citrus)
AROMA INTENSITY: medium
AROMA: Citrus, fruity, fresh, sweet
COMMON EXTRACTION METHOD: Cold-pressed/expressed or hydro-distilled from the fruit peel (rind)
POSSIBLE SUBSTITUTE OILS: Neroli, lime, lemon, grapefruit
BLENDS WELL WITH: Bay leaf, balsam fir, black pepper, cardamom, carrot seed, cassia, coriander, cedarwood, chamomile, camphor, cypress, clary sage, fennel, frankincense, geranium, helichrysum, lavender, lemon, lemon verbena, lime,neroli, niaouli, nutmeg, palmarose, sage, vetiver, ylang ylang
RECOMMENDED DILUTION RANGE: 5%-50%; neat for some conditions
Cold pressed/ expressed
Linalyl Acetate 15.6%-40.5%
Linalyl Acetate 10.7%-16.8%
OTHER COMPOUNDS: Cold pressed/expressed- Alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, beta-pinene, sabinene, beta-bisabolene, neryl-actate, alpha-bergamotene, terpinolene, neral, geranial, trans-caryophyllene, valencene bergamottin; Distilled- Alpha-pinene, myrcene, alpha-terpineol, geraniol, geranyl actate, alph-bergamotene, beta-bisabolene
REPORTED THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES: Stimulates hormone release, antibacterial, disinfectant, analgesic (pain relief), anti-inflammatory, aids digestion, reduces appearance of blemishes, supports endothelial and cardiovascular function, reduces fever, anticancer, anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, wound healing, relieves sore throat, antiseptic, encourages a restful night’s sleep, evens skin tone, decongestant, antidepressant, relaxing, sedating, uplifting, helps release suppressed negative emotions, relieves anxiety, combats aggression, reduces insecurity, despondency, and loneliness, reduces mood swings.
- Very photo-sensitizing, do not expose skin to UV rays for up to twenty-four hours following topical application. It is best to apply photo-sensitizing oils to places where they will not be exposed to UV rays.
- May interfere with the enzymes responsible for drug metabolism (NSAIDs, proton pump inhibitors, acetaminophen, anti epileptics, immune modulators, blood-sugar medications, blood pressure medications, antidepressants, anti psychotics, diabetic medications, antihistamines, antibiotics, and anesthetics).
- Bergamot may enhance autophagy (the body’s housekeeping process to remove cellular waste and pathogens, and maintain balanced sources of energy)
- Two of the major components of bergamot, limonene and linalyl acetate, are reported to play leading roles in bergamot’s ability to trigger neuroblastoma cancer-cell death. Bergamot may prevent the spread and promote the death of neuroblastomas.
- Bergamot influences calcium ion activity and endothelial inflammation to promote relaxation of the blood vessel walls (vasorelaxation), which may decrease blood pressure. Another study found that inhaling lavender, ylang ylang, and bergamot oils once daily for four weeks reduced cortisol levels, psychological stress, and blood pressure in people with essential hypertension.
- Bergamot may prevent the spread of melanoma cancer cells.
- In vitro research suggests that bergamot inhibits several mycoplasmas (bacteria that lack a cell wall, which makes them resistant to several mycoplasmas (bacteria that lack a cell wall, which makes them resistant to several common antibiotics) including M. hominis, M. pneumoniae, and M. fermentans.
- Inhalation of bergamot may reduce stress, depression, negative emotions, anxiety, and fatigue.
- Bergamot profoundly influences the nervous system to help reduce anxiety, correct mild mood disorders, protect against brain injury/damage, and reduce pain (including pain caused by something that normally would not cause pain).
- In vitro research suggests that bergamot oil inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme activity. Inhibition of BChE prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine, which is essential for memory and thinking. People with neurodegenerative diseases make less acetylcholine, which is essential for memory and thinking, and the diseases often break it down at a faster rate leading to acetylcholine deficits. Selective inhibition of BChE is also desirable in neurodegenerative diseases because it interferes with acetylcholine activity. In addition, BChE is often found in the plaques and tangles in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.
- Research suggests that bergamot reduces the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress by reducing corticosterone release, which makes it a valuable remedy for anxiety and stress management.
- A hand massage with equal parts of frankincense, bergamot, and lavender (as a 1.5% dilution with sweet almond carrier oil) reduced the pain and depression of hospice with terminal cancer.
- In vitro research suggests that the vapors of a combination of bergamot and either sweet or wild orange oils inhibit the growth of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium. Another study determined that bergamot and sweet or orange oils kill and inhibit the growth of these bacteria by affecting the cell membrane and cell homeostatsis.